Civil War

(Georgia and South Carolina Standards listed below)


The American Civil War, 1861-1865, which erupted after the election of Abraham Lincoln tore the nation apart. This program explores the reasons for going to war, from both points of view, and how decisions were made in Washington affected the average citizen in both the North and the South.  


Georgia:

Grade Four:
SS4H5 Explain the causes, major events, and consequences of the Civil War.
a. Identify Uncle Tom’s Cabin and John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry and explain how each of these events was related to the Civil War.
b. Discuss how the issues of states’ rights and slavery increased tensions between the North and South.
c. Identify major battles, campaigns, and events: Fort Sumter, Gettysburg, the Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Appomattox Court House.
d. Describe the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and William T. Sherman. e. Describe the effects of war on the North and South.

Grade Eight:
SS8H5 Analyze the impact of the Civil War on Georgia.
a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, the Dred Scott case, Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860, and the debate over secession in Georgia.
b. Explain Georgia’s role in the Civil War; include the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, the Emancipation Proclamation, Chickamauga, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville.

Grades 9 - 12:
SSUSH8 Explore the relationship between slavery, growing north-south divisions, and westward expansion that led to the outbreak of the Civil War.
a. Explain the impact of the Missouri Compromise on the admission of states from the Louisiana Territory.
d. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population growth.
e. Evaluate the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Scott v. Sanford, John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, and the election of 1860 as events leading to the Civil War.

SSUSH9 Evaluate key events, issues, and individuals related to the Civil War
a. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and the South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output.
d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and Atlanta, as well as the impact of geography on these battles.


South Carolina:

GRADE 3

Standard 3-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of life in the antebellum period, the causes and effects of the Civil War, and the impact of Reconstruction in South Carolina.

South Carolina played a key role in events that occurred before, during, and after the Civil War; and those events, in turn, greatly affected the state. To understand South Carolina’s experiences during this tumultuous time, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:

3-4.1 Compare the economic conditions for various classes of people in South Carolina, including the elite, the middle class, the lower class, the independent farmers, and the enslaved and free African Americans.

3-4.2 Summarize the development of slavery in antebellum South Carolina, including the invention of the cotton gin and the subsequent expansion of and economic dependence on slavery.

3-4.3 Explain the reasons for South Carolina’s secession from the Union, including the abolitionist movement and the concept of states’ rights.

3-4.4 Summarize the course of the Civil War in South Carolina, including the Secession Convention, the firing on Fort Sumter, the Union blockade of Charleston, the significance of the Hunley submarine; the exploits of Robert Smalls; and General William T. Sherman’s march through the state.

GRADE 4
Standard 4-6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes, the course, and the effects of the American Civil War.

Regional economic interests led to social and political differences that seemed insurmountable by 1860. To understand why the United States was forced to settle sectional differences through civil war, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:

4-6.1 Explain the significant economic and geographic differences between the North and South.

4-6.2 Explain the contributions of abolitionists to the mounting tensions between the North and South over slavery, including William Lloyd Garrison, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and John Brown.

4-6.3 Explain the specific events and issues that led to the Civil War, including sectionalism, slavery in the territories, states’ rights, the presidential election of 1860, and secession.

4-6.4 Summarize significant battles, strategies, and turning points of the Civil War, including the battles of Fort Sumter and Gettysburg, the Emancipation Proclamation, the role of African Americans in the war, the surrender at Appomattox, and the assassination of President Lincoln.

4-6.5 Explain the social, economic, and political effects of the Civil War on the United States.

3-4.5 Explain how the destruction caused by the Civil War affected the economy and daily lives of South Carolinians, including the scarcity of food, clothing, and living essentials and the continuing racial tensions.

GRADE 8
Standard 8-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the multiple events that led to the Civil War.

The outbreak of the Civil War was the culminating event in a decades-long series of regional issues that threatened American unity and South Carolina’s identity as one of the United States. To understand how South Carolina came to be at the center of this conflict, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:

8-4.1 Explain the importance of agriculture in antebellum South Carolina, including the plantation system and the impact of the cotton gin on all social classes.

8-4.2 Analyze how sectionalism arose from racial tension, including the Denmark Vesey plot, slave codes and the growth of the abolitionist movement.

8-4.3 Analyze key issues that led to South Carolina’s secession from the Union, including the nullification controversy and John C. Calhoun, the extension of slavery and the compromises over westward expansion, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Dred Scott decision, and the election of 1860.

8-4.4 Evaluate the arguments of unionists, cooperationists, and secessionists on the issues of states’ rights and slavery and the ways that these arguments contributed to South Carolina’s secession.

8-4.5 Compare the military strategies of the North and the South during the Civil War and the fulfillment of these strategies in South Carolina and in the South as a whole, including the attack on Fort Sumter, the Union blockade of Charleston and other ports, the early capture of Port Royal, and the development of the Hunley submarine; the exploits of Robert Smalls; and General William T. Sherman’s march through the state.

8-4.6 Compare the differing impact of the Civil War on South Carolinians in each of the various social classes, including those groups defined by race, gender, and age.

Grades 9 - 12
USHC-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how economic developments and the westward movement impacted regional differences and democracy in the early nineteenth century.

USHC-2.3 Compare the economic development in different regions (the South, the North, and the West) of the United States during the early nineteenth century, including ways that economic policy contributed to political controversies.

USHC-2.4 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and women’s rights.